We have here a chicken and egg kind of question. Did technology create the ever increasing speed with which modes change; or did the increase in changes help drag technology forward?
The answer is of course, both.
Now, of course all fabrics had to be hand spun, and hand loomed, and the jacquard loom was a long way off; so complex patterns of this sort were even more time consuming to create since the weaver had to keep track, thread pass by thread pass, of where they were in the design. A single meter of such an involved textile would have taken days to make.
As trade between nations increased, most especially with the East, and with a rise in information technology through the printing press in 1450, things began to move at a faster pace. From about the mid 1400's on we see an ascending curve in the speed and universality of style changes.
In the early 1400s, things looked like this.
Now, take a look at what just 50 years brought.
The 1700's took us through another phase of constraints and releases, but as we got further into the century, the ever growing number of social rules of conduct began to stiffen, quite literally, the shape and execution of clothes.
And by the 20th century, shipping by rail, boat, and plane added to the vast growth of manufactured goods, means that change can happen with even greater rapidity. Through the 20th, styles lasted, with a few exceptions, no more than 5 years before being supplanted. And now, in the 21st, prevailing modes barely make it through a year. Things are on trend for months, sometimes even only weeks.
This rapid fire change is helped along by computer technologies that allow a designer on one continent to design a garment in C-Cad, send the file to India to be made up, where they will shoot video of a model wearing it so the designer can make changes, and have finished designs patterned and ready to go into production in a matter of a few days.
Marry body scanning technology to computerized pattern making and robotics, and you get to a point where a client could walk into a store, pick a design and a fabric, and have a custom made and fitted garment delivered the next day.
Whew, I'm dizzy now.